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Lesson 3 The user environment
ObjectiveExplain how to access the user environment.

Terminal Server Environment in Windows Server 2022

The "Terminal Server" environment, known in Windows 2000, has evolved over the years and is still a part of Windows Server 2022, albeit under a different name and with expanded functionalities. In modern Windows Server versions, including Windows Server 2022, this functionality is known as Remote Desktop Services (RDS). Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server 2022 allows multiple users to connect to the server remotely and use the server's resources as if they were sitting in front of the server. This includes running applications, using network resources, or accessing files, all in their own sessions. The core idea remains the same as it was with Terminal Services, but RDS includes enhancements and new features such as:
  • Remote Desktop Session Host (RDSH): Allows a server to host multiple, simultaneous client sessions.
  • Remote Desktop Virtualization Host (RDVH): Integrates with Hyper-V to host virtual desktops.
  • Remote Desktop Connection Broker (RDCB): Manages the connection requests from clients, including reconnection to existing sessions.
  • Remote Desktop Gateway (RDG): Enables authorized users to connect to remote desktops, RemoteApp programs, and session-based desktops over the Internet.
  • Remote Desktop Web Access (RDWA): Allows users to access RemoteApp and Desktop Connection through the Start Menu or a web browser.
  • Remote Desktop Licensing (RDL): Manages the licenses for RDS.

This suite of features in RDS provides a much more comprehensive and flexible environment for remote work and application delivery than the older Terminal Services in Windows 2000, reflecting the advancements in technology and the increased need for secure, remote access solutions.

Terminal Services and User

The Terminal Server environment uses very little of the local system resources. This allows the local user tremendous flexibility managing his/her applications. In many organizations, users need access to applications on their local computers, but would benefit from access to services provided on a Windows 2000 Server. Users access Terminal Services by opening Terminal Services Client from the Program menu. When a user connects to the Terminal Server, the user environment on the client looks the same as the Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional environment. The fact that the application is not running locally is transparent to the user.

Start a "terminal session" with Windows (RDS) Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server 2022

Here's how you can start a terminal session (which connects to a remote desktop) with Windows (RDS) Remote Desktop Services using Windows Server 2022:
Before you start
  • Set up Remote Desktop Services: You need to have Remote Desktop Services installed and configured correctly on your Windows Server 2022 machine. This involves setting up the roles and potentially configuring a Remote Desktop Gateway for connections over the internet.
  • User Permissions: The user attempting to connect to the remote desktop must have the appropriate permissions to log into the server remotely.

Steps using the standard Remote Desktop Connection (RDC) client
  1. Open the Remote Desktop Connection client: On your Windows client machine, search for "Remote Desktop Connection" in the start menu or press the Windows Key + R and type "mstsc" in the Run dialog box.
  2. Enter the Server Name or IP Address: In the "Computer" field, type the name of the Windows Server 2022 machine you want to connect to. You can also enter the IP address of the server.
  3. Click "Connect": You will be prompted to enter your user credentials.
  4. Enter User Credentials: Enter the username and password of an account that has permissions to connect to the remote server.
  5. Establish the Session: Once your credentials are accepted, the remote desktop session will be established, and you'll see the Windows Server 2022 desktop within a window on your client machine.

Key Points:
  • Domain vs. Local Accounts:
    • If logging in with a domain account, you may need to use the format `DOMAIN\username`.
    • For local accounts on the server, use the format `SERVERNAME\username`.
  • Firewall: Ensure that any firewall on the Windows Server 2022 machine allows RDP connections (typically port 3389).
  • Client Compatibility: Modern Windows versions have the Remote Desktop Connection (RDC) client built-in.

Additional Notes
  • Alternative Clients: There are other RDP clients available for various operating systems, including macOS, iOS, and Android.
  • Advanced Configuration: You can customize the RDP session experience with options like resolution, color depth, device redirection, etc. To access these, click "Show Options" in the Remote Desktop Connection client.

The next lesson examines how to establish installation requirements based on the applications and the type of system on which the installation will take place.