Interface characteristics for 1) private and 2) public network segments
Private Network Segments Characteristics
A private network segment
is a network that is not directly accessible from the public internet, and is typically used to provide a secure, isolated network environment for a specific organization or group of users. Private network segments have several characteristics that distinguish them from public networks:
- IP address range: Private network segments typically use IP address ranges that are reserved for private use and are not accessible from the public internet. The most commonly used private IP address ranges are 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16.
- Network address translation (NAT): Private network segments may use NAT to translate between private IP addresses and public IP addresses, enabling traffic to flow between the private network and the public internet while maintaining security and isolation.
- Firewall protection: Private network segments are typically protected by firewalls that control access to and from the network, providing additional security and isolation.
- Virtual private network (VPN) access: Private network segments may be accessed remotely using a VPN, which provides secure access to the network over the public internet.
- Limited public access: Private network segments may be made accessible from the public internet on a limited basis, using techniques such as port forwarding or reverse proxies. However, access to the network is typically restricted to authorized users or applications.
In summary, private network segments are characterized by their use of private IP address ranges, NAT, firewalls, and VPN access, which provide security and isolation from the public internet while enabling controlled access to the network by authorized users and applications.
Public Network Segment Characteristics
A public network segment is a network that is directly accessible from the public internet, and is typically used to provide internet connectivity for end-users or to host publicly accessible services. Public network segments have several characteristics that distinguish them from private networks:
- Public IP addresses: Public network segments typically use IP addresses that are globally routable and accessible from the public internet. Public IP addresses are assigned by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) or other organizations that manage the allocation of IP addresses.
- Unrestricted access: Public network segments are generally accessible to anyone on the internet, without requiring any special permissions or credentials. This makes them convenient for hosting public services such as websites or email servers, but also makes them vulnerable to attacks and security breaches.
- High bandwidth: Public network segments typically have high bandwidth to accommodate the large volume of traffic generated by internet users accessing public services or content. This requires robust network infrastructure, including high-speed routers, switches, and other networking devices.
- Firewall protection: Public network segments may be protected by firewalls and other security measures to restrict access to sensitive data or services, and to prevent unauthorized access or attacks.
- Internet connectivity: Public network segments are connected to the public internet, which provides access to a wide range of online resources and services. This requires robust connectivity, including multiple redundant connections to ensure high availability and reliability.
In summary, public network segments are characterized by their use of globally routable IP addresses, unrestricted access, high bandwidth, firewall protection, and internet connectivity. These characteristics make public network segments ideal for hosting publicly accessible services and content, but also require robust security measures to protect against attacks and security breaches.
Data Transfer Rate for a modern LAN?
The data transfer rate for a modern LAN (Local Area Network) can vary depending on several factors, such as the type of network technology, the quality of cabling, and the network infrastructure. However, for most modern LANs, the typical data transfer rate is in the range of 1 Gbps (Gigabits per second) to 10 Gbps.
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) is a common LAN technology that provides a maximum data transfer rate of 1 Gbps. This is sufficient for most small and medium-sized businesses, as well as home networks. However, for larger enterprises or organizations that require higher bandwidth, 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) is becoming increasingly popular. 10 GbE provides a data transfer rate of up to 10 Gbps, which is ten times faster than Gigabit Ethernet. It is worth noting that the actual data transfer rate achieved on a LAN may be lower than the theoretical maximum due to factors such as network congestion, packet loss, and other types of interference. Therefore, it's important to consider network performance and reliability when designing and implementing a LAN to ensure that it meets the needs of the organization or users.
Each proxy server interface connect to either a private network or public network segment. Private network segments are based on local area network (LAN) technologies that are persistent interfaces. The data rate of the private network segment is determined by the LAN technology, such as 100 megabits per second (Mbps) data transfer rate for 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet.
Legacy Technologies (Circa 2000)
Public network segments are based on LAN and demand-dial technologies that can be persistent or non-persistent.
Public network segments that appear to Proxy Server as LAN interfaces are persistent, and the data rate is determined by the LAN technology.
Public network segments that appear as demand-dial interfaces are non-persistent, and the data rate is determined by the underlying technology.
An example of this would be a 56 kbps dial up modem connection that supports a maximum data rate of 56 kps.
If the public network segments are based on LAN technologies, you include demand-dial interfaces in your solutions, such as a VPN connection over a digital subscriber line (DSL) connection.
Include a demand-dial interface in your design
- If an exchange of credentials is required to perform authentication, such as VPN tunnel authentication
- If charges, such as ISDN connection charges, are accumulated when the public network segment is active.
Internet Addressing Architecture
In the Internet addressing architecture, a private network is a network that uses private IP address space,
following the standards set by RFC 1918 for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), and RFC 4193 for Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).
These addresses are commonly used for home, office, and enterprise local area networks (LANs), when globally routable addresses are not mandatory,
or are not available for the intended network applications. Under IPv4, the private IP address spaces were originally defined in an effort to delay IPv4 address exhaustion, but they are also a feature of IPv6, the next generation Internet Protocol.
These addresses are characterized as private because they are not globally delegated, meaning that they are not allocated to any specific organization,
and IP packets addressed with them cannot be transmitted through the public Internet. Anyone may use these addresses without approval from a regional Internet registry (RIR).
If such a private network needs to connect to the Internet, it must use either a network address translator (NAT) gateway, or a proxy server.