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IP addressing and subnetting: Calculate a subnet mask using the subnet's formula

Subnet: A portion of a network that shares a common address component. On TCP/IP networks, subnets are defined as all devices whose IP addresses have the same prefix. For example, all devices with IP addresses that start with 100.100.100. would be part of the same subnet.
Dividing a network into subnets is useful for both security and performance reasons. IP networks are divided using a subnet mask.
Gateway: A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within your company's network or at your local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes. Can transcode or allow different protocols to talk to each other.

Using netmask to find the Subnet during Linux Network Integration

An inbound packet of data arrives at your subnet's gateway presenting its destination and return addresses

The subnet's netmask determines how much of the IP address is shared by all hosts on the subnet. The IP addresses are compared in binary notation. Ones (1x) in the netmask indicate that you copy the number from to the destination subnet in the same place.

The destination subnet matches the gateway's subnet, so the data is posted

The destination host receives the data; the other hosts ignore it.