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Windows Server Networking - Glossary

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This course provides students with the knowledge and skills necessary to install and configure Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional on stand-alone and client computers that are part of a workgroup or domain. In addition, this course provides the skills and knowledge necessary to install and configure Windows 2000 Server to create file, print, Web, and Terminal servers.
Accounts Manager (SAM)
The database in which the local user account, password, and permissions information is stored on a Windows 2000 computer. Active Directory also refers to the Windows implementation of a directory service. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network. Importantly, user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by the Windows implementation of Kerberos are stored in Active Directory. Active Directory first became available as part of Windows 2000 and is available as part of Windows 2000 Server products, Windows Server 2003 products, Windows Server 2008 products, and Windows Server 2008 R2 products. Active Directory is not present in Windows NT 4.0 or in Windows XP.
Active Directory
The database in which the domain user account, password and permissions information (in addition to information about resources and other objects) is stored on a Windows 2000 domain controller.
Acronym for Accelerated Graphics Port. AGP is a video card interface available on newer motherboards that allows for faster graphics performance and increased reliability.
Application Specification
An Application Specification defines the behavior of a program and how that program interfaces with the operating system. Application specifications are typically implemented through Application Programming Interfaces or APIs.
Attached Resource Computer network (ARCnet)
A network architecture that uses the token passing media access method over coaxial cable.
Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers and digital cameras via a secure, low-cost, globally available short range radio frequency.
An area of memory that is used to store frequently needed or recently accessed data. Instead of a slower retrieval of data from the data's actual location, such as a hard disk, cached data can be retrieved more quickly from the cache instead.
A program that comes with Windows 2000 that checks for errors on a hard disk. Options allow you to choose between chkdsk finding and reporting errors only or chkdsk repairing errors as it finds them.
Client Access License (CAL)
A CAL is required for each computer that accesses a Windows server, in addition to the required operating system license.
Client for Microsoft Networks
The Client for Microsoft networks is the Microsoft redirector, also known as the "Workstation" service. The Client for Microsoft Networks allows a computer to access shared resources on a Microsoft network.
Disk partition
A division of a hard disk that can be formatted in a supported file system.
Disk Quotas
Disk quotas set limits on the maximum disk space available to a user.
Distributed file system (Dfs)
A service that allows you to organize data into a logical hierarchy even though it is physically spread over multiple computers.
A network configuration in which computers are grouped into administrative units, with access to all resources in the domain controlled by a centralized database.
Domain Name System (DNS) Server service
Provides Domain Name System name services for a network by answering DNS queries from DNS clients. It is often referred to as simply the DNS Server.
Driver signing
Operating system drivers and application drivers are used to communicate with hardware components on computers. Microsoft certifies a driver's reliability by driver signing. A digital signature indicates that Microsoft has successfully tested a driver for stability.
Encrypting File System
The Encrypting File System (EFS) provides a method of encrypting information on a local hard disk. The EFS uses a symmetric encryption algorithm to protect files on a local hard disk. Only the user that encrypted the file can access its contents.
Ethernet 802.3
A type of IEEE LAN protocol that specifies an implementation of the physical layer and the MAC sublayer of the data link layer. IEEE 802.3 uses CSMA/CD access at a variety of speeds over a variety of physical media. Extensions to the IEEE 802.3 standard specify implementations for Fast Ethernet. Physical variations of the original IEEE 802.3 specification include 10Base2, 10Base5, 10BaseF, 10BaseT, and 10Broad36. Physical variations for Fast Ethernet include 100BaseTX and 100BaseFX
Ethernet II
A type of Ethernet Frame header. Ethernet II is the most frequently used Ethernet Frame type in use on TCP/IP networks.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
FDDI is a 100 Mbit/s ANSI standard local area network architecture. FDDI is typically based on optical fibre (though it can be copper cable, in which case it may be called CDDI).
File allocated table (FAT)
A file system based on the file allocation table structure maintained by some operating systems. FAT keeps track of the status of various segments of disk space for file storage. Windows 2000 supports two versions of FAT: FAT16 (compatible with MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows 95/98, NT, Linux, OS/2 and others) and FAT32 (compatible with Windows 95b and Windows 98).
File system
A file system implements a particular set of naming and organization conventions for the storage and retrieval of files.
Foreign Keys
Foreign Keys represents the 'Nuts and Bolts' of relating data across tables.
Gateway (and Client) Service for Netware
Gateway (and Client) Services for NetWare (GSNW) allows Microsoft client computers to access NetWare resources through a software gateway. GSNW is a protocol translation gateway, allowing Microsoft Network Clients to access shared resources on NetWare computers.
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
A list of hardware components that have been tested by Microsoft for compatibility with Windows 2000. The HCL is available on Microsoft's website.
Hardware profile
A hardware profile is a collection of registry settings that you can use to change hardware settings easily. The most common application of hardware profiles simplifies readying a laptop for use on or off a network. After defining two hardware profiles, one for use on the network and one for use off the network, users can ready their laptop for either situation by simply choosing the appropriate hardware profile. Hardware profiles allow you to save time by saving sets of hardware configurations.
The ability to add or remove disks, or other devices, by simply adding them or removing them physically without having to restart the computer.
Inf file
An Inf file defines parameters for installation sequences, typically the installation of operating system driver files. An Inf file can be right-clicked and the driver installed via the context menu.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE)
The IEEE 754 standard is the standard for implementing floating-point numbers and floating-point arithmetic
An internetwork is a collection of separate networks. Typically, the term describes networks that are separated by routers and therefore contain multiple logical segments.
IPX/SPX is a communications protocol used in a Novell network.
Logical Unit Number (LUN)
A LUN is a number that defines a hardware device that usually exists on a chain with other hardware devices. For example, SCSI devices can be chained with up to 15 devices on a single chain. Each device on the chain is assigned a LUN in order to differentiate each one.
MSI file
MSI files are Windows Installer Package files, supplied by the software vendor to facilitate the installation of an application. MSI files are also used in Group Policy software deployment.
Acronym for NetBIOS Extended User Interface. NetBEUI is a non-routable transport protocol that represents an extension of the initial NetBIOS transport protocol specifications. Since NetBEUI is not routable, its usefulness is limited to small, single segment networks.
Network segment
A network segments is a group of computers within the same Ethernet Broadcast Domain, including all computers on the same side of a particular router interface.
NTFS file system
An advanced file system used in Windows 2000. NTFS supports file system recovery, large storage media, long file names, and other features of the POSIX subsystem. NTFS also supports object-oriented applications by treating all files as objects with user-defined and system-defined attributes.
NWLink IpX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol
Acronym for Peripheral Component Interface. PCI peripherals are easy to install, since much of the configuration is performed automatically. PCI automatically configures parameters such as IRQs and DMA addresses after the hardware component is installed.
PCI slots
A PCI Slot is a plug on the computer's motherboard that supports PCI peripheral cards.
Plug and Play
Plug and Play automates the installation of new hardware. The operating system automatically configures the required resources for a new computer peripheral. Examples of Plug and Play compliant operating systems include Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows 2000.
A repository of application and system configuration information.
SCSI port
A standard high-speed parallel interface defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). A SCSI interface is used for connecting computers to peripheral devices, such as hard disks and printers, and to other computers and local area networks (LANs). SCSI (pronounced scuzzy) is short for Small Computer System Interface.
Small computer system interface (SCSI) device
A device that is compatible with SCSI interface. SCSI connects computers to peripheral devices, other computers, and local area networks (LANs).
Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP)
SNAP is a Ethernet Frame type.
The system root folder is the root of the operating system files hierarchy. The system root is the WINNT folder by default.
SysVol Folder
The SysVol folder contains the registry information and domain related information, such as the Active Directory structure information.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server service
DHCP is a client/server protocol that allows automatic assignment of IP addressing information to DHCP clients through the following process. First, DHCP clients request IP addressing information from a DHCP Server. (The DHCP Server contains groups of IP addresses known as scopes.) Finally, IP addresses are selected from one of the scopes on a particular DHCP server.
Token Ring 802.5
An IEEE LAN protocol that specifies an implementation of the physical layer and MAC sublayer of the data link layer. IEEE 802.5 uses token passing access at 4 or 16 Mbps over STP or UTP cabling. Token Ring 802.5 is functionally and operationally equivalent to the IBM Token Ring
Token Ring SNAP
Token Ring SNAP is a variation of Etherent SNAP that was designed to comply with older technologies that need additional information to work with TCP/IP.
Total cost of ownership (TCO)
The total cost of purchasing and maintaining network equipment and services incurred during the service life of the equipment.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
The TCP/IP protocol suite is a collection of low and high-level protocols that govern how computers on a network communicate with each other. The Internet uses the TCP/IP protocol.
Universal Serial Bus
A new easy-to-use interface that allows you to connect up to 127 devices to a single USB Port for instant use in Windows 2000. USB architecture supports automatic device configuration and hot-swapping which allows you to add and remove devices without having to restart the computer.
A network configuration in which all computers function as independent peers. Each computer maintains its own separate SAM with no centralized security or administration.
A particular IEEE LAN protocol that specifies an implementation of the LLC sublayer of the data link layer. IEEE 802.2 handles errors, framing, flow control, and the network layer (Layer 3) service interface. Used in IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.5 LANs. See also IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.5