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Networking Services Components

In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides
  1. data storage,
  2. manipulation,
  3. presentation,
  4. communication
which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols.
Each service is usually provided by a server component running on one or more computers (often a dedicated server computer offering multiple services) and accessed via a network by client components running on other devices. However, the client and server components can both be run on the same machine.
Clients and servers will often have a user interface, and sometimes other hardware associated with them.

Cloud Computing

There are three ways of implementing cloud computing: as
  1. private,
  2. public,
  3. or hybrid clouds.
Private clouds, like a traditional LAN, exist behind the firewal of an organization l and have no public access. Public clouds are hosted services from a provider that are shared by multiple customers. Companies are increasingly purchasing subscriptions to hosted networking services from IaaS providers such as Amazon. Finally, most organizations are not placing their entire infrastructure in the cloud, instead opting for the hybrid cloud, which involves using the public cloud for some services yet retaining some systems within a private cloud.
For example, an organization may opt to use Azure for its development platform but may keep applications built in Azure within its private intranet.

Cloud Computing

While cloud computing offers many benefits, it also presents some management challenges. Security is vital. It is also necessary to efficiently allocate and monitor bandwidth requirements as outlined in the service-level agreement of a customer. With Hyper-V R3 and new networking capabilities in Server 2012, organizations have the tools not only to create their own internal, private clouds, but also to provide hosted services to customers. Server 2012 also allows system administrators to meet some of the challenges of managing a cloud computing environment by allowing control over virtual networks. It is important to remember that the underlying technology of cloud computing is virtualization. Many of the new networking features are not just for the physical networks, but virtual ones.

TCP/IP is an industry-standard, vendor-independent, routable protocol. Many of the services provided in Windows, such as WINS, DNS, Active Directory, and Internet Information Services, require TCP/IP. TCP/IP is the base protocol support of your network.

Windows 2000 uses TCP/IP as the default protocol, and you must use TCP/IP in order to avail yourself of the full range of services and applications provided with Windows.

For TCP/IP networks, managing TCP/IP configurations manually can be a time-consuming task open to error. DHCP automates and manages the TCP/IP configuration of the computers on the network, including the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS server addresses, and WINS server addresses.

DHCP reduces the administrative overhead associated with TCP/IP configuration.This overhead includes tracking used and unused IP addresses, tracking which computers are assigned what address, and visiting each computer in order to assign IP addressing information. All of the these tasks are handled by the DHCP Server

DNS provides DNS host name resolution within the network. This allows computers within the network to use a fully qualified domain name, such as

DNS resolves an FQDN to an IP address. FQDN allows network designers to create meaningful resource names and implement DNS designs for resolving those names. DNS resolves FQDNs by quering a DNS database for matching entry that relates FQDNs to IP addresses.

DNS allows you to reuse computer names on the network. As long as two computers with the same host name are not members of the same domain, the name can be used as required by the network architect.

One of the most popular peer-to-peer communications APIs is the network basic input/output (NetBIOS) API. The vast majority of network applications created on the Microsoft platform are written to the NetBIOS API.

Earlier versions of Windows networking used NetBIOS as a communications API. As with DNS FQDNs, NetBIOS names must be resolved to IP addresses for networks connections to occur. WINS is a NETBIOS name resolution service that resolves NetBIOS resource names to IP addresses.

WINS servers are one of two solutions for resolving NetBIOS names on a routed network; the other solution , LMHOSTS files, requires manual configuration and is unwieldy to manage on all but the smallest of networks.

WINS is needed to support previous clients such as those running Microsoft Windows NT version 4.0, Windows for Workgroups, or legacy Microsoft Windows 95/98 without the Active Directory client.

Any applications that use NetBIOS for peer-to-peer communications rely on WINS for name resolution.All Microsoft network operating system prior to Windows 2000 are dependent on NetBios for their core network functionality.

Together, these services provide support for an addressing structure, automated client configuration, and name resolution services.